In the decades to come, Europe is set to be changed
markedly and enduringly by low fertility rates, ageing
populations, and a growing number of migrants from
other countries and world regions. This change process
will entail a number of challenges, several of which
have long been accumulating in some countries. Today
awareness for these challenges has grown in many
places, thanks, among other things, to initiatives undertaken
by the EU. However, the individual countries
concerned differ quite considerably in the ways in which
they deal with these challenges. Smaller countries in
particular were early to embark on reforms designed to
address the new conditions. In other countries, though,
the victory of the market economy over the planned
economy masked the massive need for reform and


All of Europe is experiencing decline in the pool of manpower
resources needed to sustain high productivity
and global competitiveness, to fund social systems, and
to generate the taxes the Community needs to invest in
the future-oriented tasks like education and the family.
In some countries this decline is progressing at a very
rapid pace, in others the pace is slower, and in others
yet no decline has been observed in the potential labour
force. We also find huge disparities within countries, in
individual regions. The present study seeks to elucidate
these developments, pointing out how Europe’s regions
are set to change and what they can do to renew their




Read more: order the study at www.earthprint.com.