Education is a country’s investment in the future. Education increases each person’s chances to find a well-paid job and decent work later in life. It is an important driver of economic growth and women’s empowerment. Despite progress, many countries still face hurdles to cater for the needs of their school-age populations at all educational levels. There is a lack of well-trained teachers who struggle to keep pace with a steadily growing number of students and insufficient educational infrastructure. The third Food for Thought paper focuses on global barriers to education with a particular focus on providing equal opportunities for boys and girls.