Gender inequality persists in some form in every country and region worldwide. Overcoming entrenched inequalities in education, health, labour markets, governments and beyond is a long-term and ongoing process. Advancing gender equality in every area of public and private life is also necessary for countries to achieve a demographic dividend and sustainable development. Policies, laws and interventions must address the gendered power dynamics, social norms, values and practices that shape the unequal relationships between men and women in households, communities and societies. Priorities for public policies and interventions vary according to the stage of demographic transition in each country. The seventh Food for Thought Paper “Gender Equality for Demographic Dividend(s)” highlights key areas for action and best practice examples from Africa.